In eighteenth Century, in order to adapt to the clock, bicycles, sewing machines and other parts of the gun after the hardening process, the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States were developed using natural abrasive grinding wheel grinder. These machine tools such as lathes, grinding machine was ready and planer is installed on grinding head of restructuring, which has the advantages of simple structure, low stiffness, vibration grinding, operation workers must have very high skill to grind precision workpiece. Grinding machine for grinding workpiece surface.
Most of the use of high speed rotating grinder for grinding wheel, Whetstone, belt and other minorities to use free abrasive abrasive machining, such as honing machine, superfinishing machine, grinding machine, grinding machine polishing machine. The grinder can process high hardness materials such as hardened steel, hard alloy and so on; they can process brittle materials, such as glass, granite. Grinding machine can be used for high precision surface roughness is small grinding, but also for high efficiency grinding, such as grinding, etc..
1876 Paris exposition on the United States Brown - Sharp Co manufacturing universal cylindrical grinder, the first modern grinding machine with the basic characteristics of machinery. It workhead tailstock installation reciprocating work table, bed box improves the stiffness of machine tools, and with internal grinding attachment. In 1883, the company made the column on the table, the grinding head is arranged as reciprocating grinder. Before and after 1900, the development of artificial abrasives hydraulic transmission, the development of grinding machine has a great role in promoting. With the development of modern industry, especially the automobile industry, various types of grinding machines have been developed. For example, in the early twentieth Century, has developed a cylinder body of the cylinder grinding machine, crankshaft grinder, camshaft grinding machine with electromagnetic chuck piston ring grinder.
The automatic measuring device was applied to the grinder in 1908. Before and after the 1920, centerless grinder, surface grinder, double roll grinder, grinding machine, honing machine superfinishing machine have been made use of; 50s appeared again for grinding high precision cylindrical grinder; at the end of 60s and the emergence of the wheel speed of 60 ~ 80 m / s high speed grinder, large depth of cut creep feed grinding grinding machine; in 70s, the microprocessor digital control adaptive control technology has been widely used in grinding machine. With the increase of the number of high precision and high hardness mechanical parts and the development of precision forging technology, the performance of the grinder and the output of the varieties are increasing.
Various types of metal cutting machine tool grinding machine most of the kind of Beijing, Hanyang, the main types of cylindrical grinder, cylindrical grinder, surface grinder, centerless grinder, tool grinder, etc..
Cylindrical grinder is the most widely used, can process a variety of cylindrical conical outer surface and shaft shoulder end grinder. Universal cylindrical grinding machine with internal grinding attachment, grinding taper larger inside and outside the cone. However, grinder, low degree of automation, only suitable for small single production and repair work. Wear resistant electrode grinding wheel spindle speed is very high, can be cylindrical, conical inner hole surface. Ordinary grinder only suitable for single and small batch production. In addition to the automatic working cycle, automatic semi-automatic grinder can also be used for automatic measurement.
The general plane grinding workpiece clamping table, or by the electromagnetic force electromagnetic fixed working table, and then use the periphery of the grinding wheel or face grinding workpiece grinding machine; grinder usually refers to the centerless grinder, the workpiece without top or chuck centering support, with the workpiece is cylindrical grinding surface for positioning the workpiece in grinding wheel, guide wheel between, is supported by the supporting plate, the grinder, high production efficiency, easy to realize automation, production in large quantities. Tool grinder specially used for grinding machine tool manufacturing plastic industrial network, a universal tool grinder, drill grinder, broach cutter grinding machine, tool grinder, used for tool manufacturing plant machinery factory workshop tools.
With the rapid movement of abrasive belt grinding machine belt as a tool, workpiece by belt supporting, several times higher than other grinding efficiency, power consumption is only one of the other kind of grinding machine is mainly used for processing of large size sheet, heat, difficult to machining materials mass production plane parts etc.. Specialized grinding machine grinding a certain kind of parts, such as crankshaft, camshaft, spline shaft, guide rail, blade, bearing raceway and gear thread grinder. In addition to the above, as well as honing machine, grinding machine, grinding machine grinding and other types of coordinates.
The headstock and tailstock supported workpiece in the top two, by the head dial rotated circular feed motion. The headstock and tailstock placed on the table, can be used for vertical reciprocating feed motion. The working table is divided into two layers, and the upper worktable can be adjusted with a small angle for grinding the conical surface. The grinding wheel with a high speed rotating grinding wheel is used for the transverse feed motion. In order to reduce the length of the machine tool, the general worktable is fixed, and the grinding wheel is used for the longitudinal reciprocating motion and the transverse feed motion. Cylindrical grinding machine grinding accuracy is generally: the roundness of not more than 3 microns, the surface roughness of Ra0.63 ~ 0.32 microns; high precision cylindrical grinder, respectively, up to 0.1 microns and Ra0.01 microns.
Cylindrical grinding machine is divided into cutting cylindrical grinder, the end of the cylindrical grinder and universal cylindrical grinder. Plunge into the cylindrical grinding machine: when the workpiece grinding position is less than the width of the grinding wheel, the grinding wheel is only a continuous lateral feed, do not have to work with the relative axial movement of the workpiece, the higher productivity of the grinder. Angularapproachcylindrical grinder: grinding wheel around the vertical axis inclined at an angle, and the surface of the grinding wheel and the workpiece axis was parallel and perpendicular to the two grinding surface, while outer circle grinding shaft shoulder end, commonly used for mass production.
Universal cylindrical grinding: grinding wheel with internal grinding attachment, grinding wheel rack, rack can adjust an angle around the vertical axis, in addition to head disk rotation, the spindle can be rotated. This machine can expand the range of processing, grinding the inner hole and the large taper inside and outside the cone, suitable for small batch and single piece production. In addition, there are two wheel grinding machine and multi wheel grinding wheel grinder, they can simultaneously grinding two or more journal, suitable for mass production.